american offense stories Dissertation

1. 1 . 1 . USE IN HISTORIC CULTURES

The history of cigarette smoking dates back to as early as 5000 BC in shamanistic rituals.  Many historical civilizations, such as the Babylonians, Indians and China, burnt incense as a part of faith based rituals, while did the Israelites as well as the later Catholic and Orthodox Christian chapels. Smoking in the Americas probably had their origins in the incense-burning events of shamans but was afterwards adopted to get pleasure, or perhaps as a interpersonal tool.  The smoking of tobacco, along with various hallucinogenic drugs was used to achieve trances and to come into contact with the nature world. Substances such as Marijuana, clarified butter (ghee), seafood offal, dried out snake cases and various pastes molded around incense sticks dates back at least 2000 years. Fumigation (dhupa) and flames offerings (homa) are prescribed in the Ayurveda for medical purposes, and have been practiced no less than 3, 000 years while smoking,  dhumrapana (literally " drinking smoke" ), has been practiced for at least 2, 000 years. Before modern times these chemicals have been used through pipes, with arises of various measures or chillums. Cannabis smoking was common at the center East ahead of the arrival of tobacco, and was at the beginning a common sociable activity that centered surrounding the type of water pipe called a hookah. Smoking, specifically after the launch of smoking cigarettes, was an integral part of Muslim society and culture to become integrated with important traditions such as marriages, funerals and was expressed in structures, clothing, literature and poetry. Cannabis smoking was released to Sub-Saharan Africa through Ethiopia and the east African seacoast by either Indian or Arab investors in the thirteenth century or earlier and spread about the same trade paths as the ones that carried caffeine, which originated in the highlands of Ethiopia.  It was smoked in calabash water pipes with terra cotta smoking containers, apparently a great Ethiopian invention which was later conveyed to eastern, the southern part of and...

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